Mars' relatively high orbital eccentricity, along with its axial tilt, causes the planet to experience more dramatic seasonal changes than you find on Earth. This happens because as Mars circles the sun, its distance varies between 1.35 astronomical unit at its closest point to 1.64 astronomical unit at its farthest Mars Mean Orbital Elements (J2000) Semimajor axis (AU) 1.52366231 Orbital eccentricity 0.09341233 Orbital inclination (deg) 1.85061 Longitude of ascending node (deg) 49.57854 Longitude of perihelion (deg) 336.04084 Mean Longitude (deg) 355.45332 North Pole of Rotatio Mars has an orbit with a semimajor axis of 1.524 astronomical units (228 million kilometers), and an eccentricity of 0.0934. The planet orbits the Sun in 687 days and travels 9.55 AU in doing so, making the average orbital speed 24 km/s Orbital Eccentricity. A measurement of how much Mars' orbit around the Sun differs from a perfect circle; 0 = a perfect circle, and values between 0 and 1 represent an elliptical (oval) orbit. Mars' orbit is about 5.6 times more eliptical than that of Earth, which is nearly a perfect circle. Mars: 0.0933941 Mars has a much longer cycle of eccentricity, with a period of 2.2 million Earth years, and this overshadows the 96,000-year cycle in the eccentricity graphs. [ clarification needed ] For the last 35,000 years, the orbit of Mars has been getting slightly more eccentric because of the gravitational effects of the other planets

- Mars has an axial tilt of 25.19°, quite close to the value of 23.44° for Earth, and thus Mars has seasons of spring, summer, autumn, winter as Earth does. As on Earth, the southern and northern hemispheres have summer and winter at opposing times. However, the orbit of Mars has significantly greater eccentricity than that of Earth
- Mars' orbital eccentricity varies with a period of 95 ka; the precession period is 51 ka, and the obliquity changes with a 120 ka periodicity, with additional periods longer than one million years [ Ward, 1974, 1979, 1992 ]. The Fourier amplitudes for Earth and Mars are shown in Figure 1 to compare not only periodicities but also amplitudes
- Mars has a relatively pronounced orbital eccentricity of about 0.09. Of the seven other planets in the Solar System, only Mercury has a larger orbital eccentricity. It is known that in the past, Mars had a much more circular orbit
- Its eccentricity, or oblateness, increased from .047829 to .048468. This is a increase of 1.336%, or one part in 74.85. Jupiter is 2,957 times as massive as little Mars. When Mars rounded out, 100.191% of its decrease in eccentricity (rounding out) was caused by Jupiter, 5.108% was caused by the Earth and -5.299% was caused by Venus
- es the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle.A value of 0 is a circular orbit, values between 0 and 1 form an elliptic orbit, 1 is a parabolic escape orbit, and greater than 1 is a hyperbola.The term derives its name from the parameters of conic sections, as every.
- This happens because of the eccentricity of Mars's orbit and a complex exchange of carbon dioxide between Mars's dry-ice polar caps and its CO2 atmosphere. Around the summer solstice when the Martian north pole is tilted away from the sun, the northern polar cap expands as carbon dioxide in the polar atmosphere freezes
- But Mars has the highest orbital eccentricity of any planet except Mercury and Pluto; the distance from the Sun to Mars varies from 1.64 AU to 1.36 AU over a martian year

The orbit of Mars is more oval-shaped than that of the Earth. The difference between the oval shape of the Martian orbit and a perfect circle is called the * eccentricity * of the orbit Mars has an orbit with a semimajor axis of 1.524 astronomical units (228 million km), and an eccentricity of 0.0934. The planet orbits the Sun in 687 days and travels 9.55 AU in doing so, making the average orbital speed 24 km/s Roughly 1.35 million years ago, **Mars** had an **eccentricity** **of** just 0.002, making its orbit nearly circular. It reached a minimum **eccentricity** **of** 0.079 some 19,000 years ago, and will peak at about 0. But Mars' orbit is not as circular as ours, having an eccentricity of 0.093, which means that its distance from the Sun varies by a little over 18%, or nearly 28 million miles The eccentricity of mars is.093 and the value of c is 132,000,000 miles. What is the value of Mar's semi-major axis (semi-major axis = a in ellipse's equation)

- Table 2 Orbital parameters for Mars and Earth Property Mars Earth Mass (kg) 6:46 1023 5:98 1024 Radius (m) 3394 6369 Gravity at surface ðms 2Þ 3.72 9.81 Orbit eccentricity 0.093 0.017 Semimajor axis (AU) 1.52 1.0 Solar ﬂux ðWm 2Þ 590 1360 Length of year (Earth days) 687 365 Length of solar day (s) 88775 86400 Spin-axis inclination ( ) 25.
- At point 1 the SC enters the gravitational influence of Mars. The velocity of the SC here is about 21.5 km s-1 (relative to the Sun). Mars is moving at a constant velocity of 24.1 km s-1
- The eccentricity of Mars' orbit is presently 0.093 (compared to Earth's 0.017), meaning there is a substantial variability in Mars' distance to the Sun over the course of the year—much more so than nearly every other planet in the solar system (only Mercury has a larger orbital eccentricity)
- Eccentricity is used to define the shape of any planetary orbit. A perfect circle has an eccentricity of zero. Ellipses have an eccentricity between 0 and 1, while parabolas have an exact measurement of 1. Mars's orbit has an eccentricity of 0.09, which makes it the second most eccentric orbit of all the planets. Only Mercury has a greater one
- 677) State how the eccentricity of the given ellipse compares to the eccentricity of the orbit of Mars. 678) Calculate the eccentricity of the ellipse to the nearest thousandth. 679) The maps below show the amount of sea ice surrounding the continent of Antarctica at two different times of the year. Map A represents late August when the area covered by sea ice approaches its greatest extent
- In the earliest days of Mars observation, all that was known about it was that it appeared to be a fiery red and followed a strange loop in the sky, unlike any other. THE BABYLONIANS The Babylonians studied astronomy as early as 400 BC, and developed advanced methods for predicting astronomical events such as eclipses

Calculate the eccentricity: For the ellipse you have just drawn, label the distance from the sun to perihelion r 1. Measure this distance. Label and measure the distance from the sun to aphelion, and call it r 2. Use these values to calculate the eccentricity: Determine the accuracy: The known eccentricity of Mars' orbit is e = 0.09. How close. Determine the velocity the probe must have at launch to reach Mars. The diagram shows the geometry of the orbits in our example. The orbit of the space probe must have perihelion at the Earth's Orbit and aphelion at the orbit of the target planet. eccentricity = e = 1 - r perihelion /a = 1 - 1/1.262 = 0.208 We now can use Kepler's third law. At one point 1.35 million Earth years ago, Mars had an eccentricity of only 0.2%, much less than that of Venus or Neptune today. Although Mars takes twice as long as the Earth to orbit the Sun, its main cycle of eccentricity variation is slightly shorter than Earth's, with cycles taking 95,000 Earth years The eccentricity (e) is a number which measures how elliptical orbits are. If e = 0, the orbit is a circle. Most of the planets have eccentricities close to 0, so they must have orbits which are nearly circular Which planet has an orbital eccentricity most like the orbital eccentricity of the moon ? ( look at reference table ) Saturn. Which object is located at one foci of the elliptical orbit of mars ? The sun. When the distance between the foci of an ellipse is increased , the eccentricity of the ellipse will

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- received on the planet is the eccentricity of its orbit, while the obliquity (tilt of the equator over the orbit), and precession angle control the seasonal variations of the insolation at a given latitude. The present eccen-tricity of Mars is 0.0933 but has varied in a large amount in the past due to the chaotic evolution of its orbit [1, 2]
- NASA's Perseverance Drives on Mars' Terrain for First Time The award moves NASA and ESA a step closer to realizing Mars Sample Return, an ambitious planetary exploration program that will build upon decades of science, knowledge, and experience
- Because of the eccentricity of the planets' orbits, some oppositions are more favourable than others, the planets then shining brighter than at other oppositions. This is particularly true for Mars, whose orbit is quite eccentric, the result being that its distance from the Earth varies considerably from one opposition to the next.. The distance between Earth and Mars at opposition varies from.
- 8) The orbit of Mars has an eccentricity of 0.093. The distance between the two foci is 0.283 AU. The closest Mars gets to the sun during its orbit 1.83 AU. What is the farthest Mars gets from the Sun? Hint: remember that the sun is located at one of the foci
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**Mars**encompasses half of one orbit, so approximately 259 days. Using the daily motions of Earth and**Mars**, compute the ideal relative position of Earth and**Mars**during launch.**Mars**completes one revolution around the sun (360 degrees) in 687 days, so that means it moves 0.524 degrees per day (360 degrees/687 days) - Eccentricity measures how much the shape of Earth's orbit departs from a perfect circle. These variations affect the distance between Earth and the Sun. Eccentricity is the reason why our seasons are slightly different lengths, with summers in the Northern Hemisphere currently about 4.5 days longer than winters, and springs about three days.

* The radial distribution of the dust suggests a primary source of dust with the orbital elements (inclination and eccentricity) of Mars, scattered into a secondary population at higher inclination to the ecliptic*. Up until now, astronomers speculated that this dust came from asteroids and comets traveling through the solar system Orbital Eccentricity Planet Orbital Eccentricity Perihelion (Point in Orbit Closest to Sun) measured in AU's Mercury 0.206 0.31 Venus 0.007 0.718 Earth 0.017 0.98 Mars 0.093 1.3

For ellipses, the eccentricity is related to how oblong the ellipse appears. A circle has zero eccentricity, whereas a very long, drawn-out ellipse has an eccentricity near one. If the total energy is exactly zero, then [latex] e=1 [/latex] and the path is a parabola. Recall that a satellite with zero total energy has exactly the escape velocity The eccentricity of the orbit of Mars appears to vary with a period of 96,000 years, which is superposed on a greater variation with a period of about 2,200,000 years. Presently the eccentricity varies around the value 0.09, but one million years ago its mean value was 0.03 Due to the eccentricity of Mars's orbit, the energy needed in the low-energy periods varies on roughly a 15-year cycle with the easiest periods needing only half the energy of the peaks. In the 20th century, there was a minimum in the 1969 and 1971 launch periods and another low in 1986 and 1988, then the cycle repeated ** The scattering depends only on two quantities: the dust inclination to the ecliptic and its orbital eccentricity**. When the researchers plugged in the orbital elements of Mars, the distribution.

The eccentricity of Mars's orbit has a big impact on the Red Planet's seasons. Northern summer on Mars lasts 24 days longer than northern winter because the planet is close to aphelion during the summer. Planets move more slowly at aphelion than they do at perihelion (see Kepler's 2nd Law of planetary motion) and, so, seasons occurring near. Eccentricity is a measure of how an orbit deviates from circular. A perfectly circular orbit has an eccentricity of zero; higher numbers indicate more elliptical orbits. Neptune, Venus, and Earth are the planets in our solar system with the least eccentric orbits. Pluto and Mercury are the planets in our solar system with the most eccentric orbits * Observations by the Mariner, Mars and Viking spacecraft have provided detailed insights into the thermal structure and dynamics of the atmosphere of Mars*. While these observations have confirmed many of the expectations drawn from terrestrial experience about the atmosphere's general circulation and wave activity, there are many aspects which are due to unique attributes of Mars The eccentricity increase of Venus, the Earth and Mars, is then obtained through secular resonances among the inner planets while the eccentricity of Mercury decreases between 3.305 and 3.325 Gyr However, another factor of the seasons on Mars is how elliptical the orbit of the planet has. It has a rather high orbital eccentricity, most likely affected by the much heavier planet Jupiter, the immediate planet outside Mars. This high orbital eccentricity means the distance from the Sun to Mars varies considerably

Mars is an exception with a large orbital eccentricity of 0.093 that changes slowly over thousands of years. This means that Mars' distance from the Sun varies as it goes around, from a closest approach of 1.38 AU to a maximum of 1.66 AU The eccentricity ( ), semi-major axis (a), and perihelion position (!) for the orbit of Mars was determined using the same triangulation method developed by J. Kepler. Data analyzed includ Mars has a more eccentric orbit of the Sun than Earth. Mars is 20% closer to the Sun during its winter than it is during its summer. How would temperature distributions on Earth be affected if we had a similarly eccentric orbit that brought us much closer to the Sun during winter in the Northern Hemisphere? a The eccentricity c/a for other planets is given in Table 1 (rounded to two decimal places). Use interactive figure 3 and move the Sun so that the ellipse has the given eccentricity. Even for planets with bigger eccentricities such as Mars, the circle is still a pretty good approximation to the shape of the orbit

As the eccentricity increases toward 1, the ellipse gets flatter and flatter. A major problem with Copernicus's theory was that he described the motion of the planet Mars as having a circular orbit. In actuality, Mars has one of the most eccentric orbits of any planet, with an eccentricity of 0.0935 Planning a Mars Mission By HENRY FOUNTAIN (May 8, 2001) NASA has taken a small step toward a possible unmanned Mars mission that would return samples of Mars rock and dust to Earth. • Eccentricity of Orbit: 0.093 • Distance from Sun: 227.9 million km, 141.6 million mile * Eccentricity is the measure of the roundness of an orbit*. A perfectly circular orbit has an eccentricity of zero; higher numbers indicate more elliptical orbits. Neptune, Venus, and Earth are the planets in our solar system with the least eccentric orbits. Mercury and the dwarf planet Pluto have the most eccentric orbits Of the three brightest planets (Venus, Jupiter, and Mars), Mars has the largest eccentricity. If Kepler had studied Venus, he might have concluded that planets really do have circular orbits. On the other hand, if any of the brightest planets had very eccentric orbits (e > 0.5) the true shape of planetary orbits might have been discovered.

Mars have very elliptical orbit relatively to Earth. The eccentricity of the orbit of Mars is 0.0935 - second among the planets after Mercury. Launch windows to Mars opened approximately every 2.14 years (26 months) but because of Mars orbit eccentricity and differences in his orbital speed this time changes a little bit from time * The orbital eccentricity of the planet Mars is 0*.0934. What is the most appropriate term for this type of orbit? Select one O a. Circular b. Hyperbolic c. Elliptical d

10. Mars moves in an elliptical orbit around the Sun. The location of the Sun relative to this ellipse is at A) the focus that is closer to the point where Mars is moving the slowest. B) one end of the major axis of the ellipse. C) the exact center of the ellipse. D) the focus that is closer to the point where Mars moves the fastest The flattest ellipse before it becomes a line will have an eccentricity of _____. Eccentricity DRAFT. 10th grade. 332 times. Other Sciences. 64% average accuracy. 3 years ago. pcaban72. 2. Save. Edit. Edit. Mars. Mercury. Tags: Question 5 . SURVEY . 120 seconds . Q. The gravitational attraction between the star and the planet will be. Mars is the 4th planet from Sun, and the place that holds our imagination because of the possibility that there might be life there. This orbit has a very minor eccentricity (approx. 0.0167. Semimajor axis (AU) 19.19126393 Orbital eccentricity 0.04716771 Orbital inclination (deg) 0.76986 Longitude of ascending node (deg) 74.22988 Longitude of perihelion (deg) 170.96424 Mean Longitude (deg) 313.2321

One of the strangest effects of seasons on Mars is the change in atmospheric pressure. During winter the global atmospheric pressure on Mars is 25% lower than during summer. This happens because of the eccentricity of Mars's orbit and a complex exchange of carbon dioxide between the Martian dry-ice polar caps and its CO 2 atmosphere. Around the. Mariner 9 was the first orbital mission to Mars. After arriving at the Red Planet in November 1971, imagery from Mariner 9 transformed our perception of Mars from a cold, crater-filled planet to a. Notes: Mass is given in Earth masses (1 M E = 5.9724× 10 24 kg); diameter is the ``volumetric mean diameter'' that takes into account the planet's oblateness; oblateness measures how much a planet bulges at the equator [= (equatorial - polar diameter)/(equatorial diameter)]; rotation is the sidereal spin period, d in rotation is sidereal day of Earth, and axis tilt is the tilt of the. Visit http://ilectureonline.com for more math and science lectures!In this video I will show you how to calculate the eccentricity of a planets orbit using K..

The eccentricity of the orbit of Mars is only about 0.1; its orbit, drawn to scale, would be practically indistinguishable from a circle, but the difference turned out to be critical for understanding planetary motions. Kepler generalized this result in his first law and said that the orbits of all the planets are ellipses. Here was a decisive. Mars has the most elliptical orbit. Its eccentricity is 0.2. Eris has an even larger eccentricity, 0.44, nearly double that of Pluto's 0.25 In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics, an elliptic orbit or elliptical orbit is a Kepler orbit with an eccentricity of less than 1; this includes the special case of a circular orbit, with. The data for Mars presented the greatest challenge to this view and that eventually encouraged Kepler to give up the popular idea. A circle has zero eccentricity, whereas a very long, drawn-out ellipse has an eccentricity near one. If the total energy is exactly zero, then . and the path is a parabola. Recall that a satellite with zero.

The orbit of mars around the sun is an ellipse with eccentricity 0.093 and semi-major axis 2.28 x 108 km. Find a polar equation for the orbit The orbit of Mars has an eccentricity of 0.0934 [wikipedia.org] - in other words it is remarkably regular in terms of the way that it moves around our star. What I believe this means is that it is somewhere between somewhat and highly unlikely that Mars was formerly the moon of a long-lost planet Mathematicians calculate eccentricity to determine how close the resemblance is between a conic section and a circle. A circle's eccentricity is always zero and with an ellipse, the eccentricity is less than one, but greater than zero. The eccentricity of two conic sections must be equal for them to be similar

- sustained manned Mars Base. 9 11. Prelude to Circulating Orbit Design Earth and Mars revolve about the Sun with orbit periods of 1.0 year and 1.8808 years, respectively. Earth travels in the ecliptic plane with an orbit eccentricity of 0.0168 while Mars travels in a plane inclined by 1.85' to the ecl ip
- The eccentricity of Venus is almost 14 times smaller than that of Mars, and 2.5 times smaller than that of Earth, and 30 times smaller than that of Mercury. Is it just a pure fluke? Or is there some
- Then, by continuation on the eccentricity of the secondary, this QSO will be converted into a periodic resonant QSO in the Mars-Phobos elliptic restricted three-body problem. The latter problem is more precise than the Hill problem at far distance from the secondary and thus more adapted to handle Mars-Phobos transfers
- Orbit eccentricity (deviation from circular) 0.093 Maximum surface temperature (K) 310 Minimum surface temperature (K) 150 Visual geometric albedo (reflectivity) 0.15 Highest point on surface Olympus Mons (about 24 km above surrounding lava plains) Atmospheric components 95% carbon dioxide, 3% nitrogen, 1.6% argo
- The eccentricity of the Mars Elliptic Orbit is e= 0:092 and the distance from the sun to the aphelion is R a = 1:665AU. A gure (drawn to scale!) of this orbit is shown below. It is easy to see (from the gure) that Mars does not orbit in a circle around the sun. It is much more di cult to see that Mars does not move in a circle about th
- and +39.9

Mars is an exception with a large orbital eccentricity of 0.093 that changes slowly over thousands of years. This means that Mars' distance from the Sun varies as it goes around, from a closest approach of 1.38 AU to a maximum of 1.66 AU. The Earth is in a nearly circular orbit with an eccentricity of 0.017 Due to the eccentricity of Mars's orbit, observed electron density profiles must be adjusted to a common Mars-Sun distance to highlight solar cycle effects. This process involves increasing observed electron density values by a factor proportional to the Mars-Sun distance, which mitigates for variations in incident irradiance, and. All the planets have orbits of rather low eccentricity. The most eccentric orbit is that of Mercury (0.21); the rest have eccentricities smaller than 0.1. It is fortunate that among the rest, Mars has an eccentricity greater than that of many of the other planets To conclude, we find that the present orbital inclination and eccentricity of Deimos strongly suggest a past 3:1 MMR with an outward migrating past inner satellite of Mars about 20 times more massive than Phobos

- Martian months are defined as spanning 30 degrees in solar longitude. Due to the eccentricity of Mars' orbit, martian months are thus from 46 to 67 sols long, as shown in the table below
- Neither orbit is perfectly circular; Earth has an orbital eccentricity of 0.0168, and Mars of 0.0934. The two orbits are not quite coplanar either, as the orbit of Mars in inclined by 1.85 degrees to that of Earth. The effect of the gravity of Mars on the cycler orbits is almost negligible, but that of the far more massive Earth needs to be.
- Planetary Fact Sheet in U.S. Units. Planetary Fact Sheet - Values compared to Earth. Index of Planetary Fact Sheets - More detailed fact sheets for each planet. Notes on the Fact Sheets - Explanations of the values and headings in the fact sheet. Schoolyard Solar System - Demonstration scale model of the solar system for the classroo
- Earth's orbital eccentricity is only 0.0167. Mars has a somewhat larger orbital eccentricity of 0.0935. The orbits of Mercury and Pluto have the largest eccentricities of planetary orbits in our Solar System; 0.2056 for Mercury and 0.2488 for Pluto. Comets often have extremely eccentric orbits
- Basically, they found that if Mars had an eccentricity of 0.17 (compared to it's current eccentricity of 0.0934) an axial tilt of 25° (compared to 25.19° today), and an atmospheric pressure of 600..
- The Law of Orbits All planets move in elliptical orbits, with the sun at one focus. This is one of Kepler's laws.The elliptical shape of the orbit is a result of the inverse square force of gravity.The eccentricity of the ellipse is greatly exaggerated here
- Six days later, both planets will have moved a little along their orbits, but, because of the eccentricity of its orbit, Mars will be slightly closer to Earth than it was before. If you look at the complete orbits of the four inner planets, you can see how Venus and Earth follow almost perfect circles centered on the sun

It has been established that, owing to the proximity of a resonance with Jupiter, Mercury's eccentricity can be pumped to values large enough to allow collision with Venus within 5 Gyr (refs 1-3) Which object is located at one foci of the elliptical orbit of Mars? the Sun Earth Betelgeuse Jupiter. the Sun. Which of the following eccentricity values would produce most eccentric orbit?.009.09.01.34.34. Which planet have the most eccentric orbit? Mercury Venus Neptune Saturn. Mercury. Which planet has an orbit with an eccentricity most. The orbit of Mars has an eccentricity of 0.093. The distance between the two foci is 0.283 AU. The closest Mars gets to the sun during its orbit is 1.38 AU. What is the farthest Mars gets from the sun? (Hint: Remember that the sun is located at one of the foci. Mars has an orbit with a semimajor axis of 1.524 astronomical units (228 million kilometers), and an eccentricity of 0.0934. The planet orbits the Sun in 687 days and travels 9.55 AU in doing so, making the average orbital speed 24 km/s. Also asked, which two planets have the most similar eccentricity

The paper presents an efficient method for the calculation of the eccentricity function (Hansen's coefficients), which is numerically stable for high eccentricities: e ∼ 0.6 - 0.8 and for high indices l, p, q of the eccentricity function corresponding to the maximum order and degree of contemporary gravity models (e.g. 70×70 for the Earth and 50×50 for Mars) **Mars** has two moons: Phobos and Deimos. They are among the smallest moons in the Solar System, Phobos being about 22km wide, and Deimos being only slightly smaller at 13km wide. Usually, **eccentricity** and inclination grow together. For example, if you get random kicks to the orbit by an impact or similar events then the tilt and **eccentricity**. Ever since Laskar (1994) it was known that Martian eccentricity can experience large variation over the age of the Solar System, and Ćuk et al. (2015) recently found a major effect of the variation in Martian eccentricity on the dynamics of Mars Trojans. This suggested that we may need to separately explore Hungarias' stability in different. Because of the eccentricity of Mars's orbit, opposition (when Mars is opposite the Sun in the sky) and closest approach do not occur at the same time. For instance, although the 1990 opposition was on Nov. 27, the planet was closest to earth on Nov. 20. Mars's two moons are Phobos and Deimos

Deimos is one of two moons of planet Mars. Diemos is the smaller outermost moon, and as its orbit is slowly expanding, is expected to eventually escape Mars gravity. Both moons may be asteroids captured by Mars. For a listing of all moons, see Moons of the Planets The eccentricity (e) is a number which measures how elliptical orbits are. If e=0, the orbit is a circle. All the planets have eccentricities close to 0, so they must have orbits which are nearly circular 5.The Earth has a semi-major axis of 1.0 AU (by de nition) and an orbital eccentricity of 0.017. Mars has a semi-major axis of 1.524 AU and an orbital eccentricity of 0.093. The closest approach of Mars to the Earth is called opposition, where Mars lies on the meridian at midnight. However, the distance from th The eccentricity of the Mars orbit is currently 0.093 but it oscillates between 0.01 and 0.14 with characteristic periods of et al., 1973). Clearly, when the orbit is nearly cir- cular the effects of the precessional cycle are minimized, since hemispheric differ- ences are minimized. In contrast, at the. We found an averaged eccentricity of Mars over 5 Gyr of 0.0690 with standard deviation 0.0299, while the averaged value of the obliquity is 37.62° with a standard deviation of 13.82°, and a maximal value of 82.035°. We find that the probability for Mars' obliquity to have reached more than 60° in the past 1 Gyr is 63.0%, and 89.3% in 3 Gyr